How may ICT be used for development in the field of Agriculture?

Introduction

The term information and communication technology can be used to jointly define a large number of technological masterpieces like telephones, radio, televisions, voice information system and fax as well as a personal computer fitted with a modem. ICT is a very important physical infrastructure which can play an important role in agriculture by bridging the communication divide between people due to geographical barriers.
During the last decade we have observed that the progress in information technology (IT) has enhanced the progress in hardware technology in such a manner that we have procured high-speed reliable computers with huge storage capacities at affordable cost. Also, database and data warehousing technologies have enabled us to store and retrieve large amount of information that can be send to the needy via Internet technology. Moreover the stored information can be quickly extracted by millions of users simultaneously. The improvements in communication technology are so enormous that Internet speed has increased significantly and the day is not far when it will be possible to provide instantaneous connectivity (both ways) to millions of people enabling mass customization and personalized services. Such IT based developments are going to provide new opportunities to improve the utilization and performance of livelihood technologies such as agriculture, education, library, health and medical services, and artesian technologies.

“With agriculture in the 21st century moving rapidly away from an artisanal, labour extensive, traditional activity towards a sophisticated, information intensive sector of the global economy, access to information and modern communication technologies has become a necessity for the world's farmers, especially in developing countries” United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO).

Agriculture is an important sector because majority of rural population of a country depends upon it. Usually the major part of economy of a country based upon it. Agriculture refers to the goods and food through forestry and farming. The development in agriculture led the rise of civilization. The husbandry of domesticated animals and plants created food and other goods that enabled the development of densely populated societies.
The major disciplines of agriculture1are; Crop cultivation, Water management, Fertilizer application, Fustigation, Harvesting, Transporting of food products, Food preservation, Post harvest handling, Pest management, Food processing, Food quality management, Food safety, Food marketing, Food storage.
All peoples relating to the agriculture industry need knowledge and information about these phases to manage them efficiently. So it is necessary that any system applied for getting information and knowledge about agricultural fields should provide complete, accurate, concise information in time or on time and it must be user friendly, easily accessible, cost –effective and well protected from unauthorized information.
Pakistan is a land enriched with natural resources. Among these natural resources fertile lands are the most important one. According to an estimate about 25% of country’s land is cultivated each year2. If we examine the cultivated land on provincial basis then about 70% of the crop area is in Punjab, nearly 20% in Sindh, less than 10% in NWFP and only 1% in Baluchistan. About 80% of cultivated area is irrigated by the world largest irrigation system because of the secant rainfall in this region. The irrigation system represents a significant engineering achievement. This irrigation includes three major storage reservoirs and numerous barrages, headworks, canals, and distribution channels. The total length of the cannal system exceeds about 58,000 Km.
In spite of all these factors the productivity is among the lowest in the world. Still in some parts of the country plowing is done with the old mechanisms involving a wooden plow of ancient times which is pulled by a pair of bullocks. The condition is more worsened by the use of unhealthy seeds for sowing.
The farming community is facing a large no of problems to maximize crop productivity to meet the demand. Some successful research on new agricultural practices concerning crop cultivation is being employed but the majority of farmers are not getting upper-bound yield due to several reasons. A major reason of such failure is that the expert/scientific advice regarding crop cultivation is not reaching farming community in a timely manner.
Information and Communication technology can play a significant role in improving and developing agriculture problems as it consist of three main technologies i.e. Computer technology, Communication technology, Information Management technology.
The main focus of this project is that how can we apply achievements of ICT in Agriculture sector. The main applications of ICT in Agriculture are; Application of office automation, Application of knowledge management system, Application of E- Commerce, Application of Wireless Technologies, Application of computer controlled devices.

Motivation

In July 2000 the G8 countries established Digital Opportunity Task Force. The objectives of DOT force were to bring together governments, non-governmental organizations, experts and the private sector around initiatives focusing on different aspects of the digital divide, such as access, training, and support for locally relevant Internet content. UN also established an ICT Task Force in 2001, to give a forum for the discussions on policies and particularly on how ICT can help to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

“In his opening statement to the General Assembly plenary meeting on ICTs for development in June 2002, the Secretary General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, identified three areas of shortfall in the policy process at the international level:
• Top down, donor-driven: Our efforts must be based on the real needs of those we are seeking to help. They must be fully and genuinely involved. […] In particular, we must find better ways to ensure the participation of developing countries at all stages.
• Lack of long-term commitment: Our efforts must be sustained over the long term. In recent years, we have witnessed a number of very promising initiatives that, regrettably, did not live up to expectations. The reasons were diverse, but one of the principal causes was insufficient long term commitment on the part of initiators and sponsors.
• Duplication of efforts: There is a real need for the many initiatives to come together, united by a common purpose and common determination.” LIESA MAGAZINE July 2002

Agriculture is the backbone of Pakistan’s economy as two-thirds of the population lives in rural areas and depends (directly or indirectly) on agriculture for a living. It contributes about 24 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and accounts for half of employed labour force and is the largest source of foreign exchange earnings3. Due to these factors the income from farming is the only source of income for the majority of the farming community and their families. The farming community usually lack the necessary funds required to raise a crop. To fulfill the need of required balance a farmer usually takes credit from other sources which include banks and private financial institutions. In these circumstances the survival of the farmer's family depends on the success of the crop because the repayment of the credit depends upon the crop yield. If the crop fails even once, the farmer loses the capital money which is the often taken as a credit. So the thought of crop’s failure should be prevented with all the available resources.
Clearly the crops success depends upon the factor of preventing the effect of the factors that disturb the crop. Some factors which include bad weather and rain fall patterns are difficult to predict fairly in advance in spite of the current advances in science and technology. But the effect of several other factors on crop growth can be determined and corresponding steps can be taken in advance using the current advances in agricultural technology. These effects include the application of the fertilizer in excess and in an untimely manner, which can be reduced by providing information regarding amount and type of fertilizers required to get the maximum output, the type of soil and the crop details. Moreover the information about the right treatment of pesticides can be provided given the type of pest and the corresponding crop details.
Drawbacks of traditional agricultural system:
Agricultural productivity is being increased by facilitating the reach of a farmer to magazines, newspapers, broadcast media (Radio and Television), organizing seminars and gatherings, and Web sites. This all can be sum under a common heading which is traditional method. The traditional method lags behind due to following reasons:
1. Insignificance of the information: The information is distributed by considering a large community of farmers and a few crops at a time. The method surely helps a few farmers by providing them information about advances in agriculture and the information related to improve the crop productivity. However a large group of farmer is unconcerned of this information because it is irrelevant as they are cultivating different crops. Thus this system does not consider the fact that each farmer needs a distinct guidance for each crop he cultivates.
2. Failure of the system to reach each farmer: Moreover the system is out of reach of majority of farmers due to the fact that a large number of them are either illiterate or they have low literacy level. In addition to this a common farmer is normally busy taking care of day-to-day farming activities so. Also, it is inappropriate to expect the farmers to keep track of the developments at the research level because a typical farmer is normally busy taking care of day-to-day farming activities so he is unable to keep himself up to date of the research in agricultural technology.
3. Un-reliability of the system: The information provided by the system is one way which means that it is pushed towards the farmer even though the farmer is unsatisfied of the information. Thus feedback factor is not available in this system. In addition, there is no surety that the information the system is generating is trustworthy.
Thus to improve the yield of a farmer these drawbacks should be eliminated which can be done by creating such a system which will provide expert advice on continuous basis to the farmer by considering the case of each crop separately. In simple words the information generated by such a system will be personalized with respect to the crop of each farmer.

Objectives

The principal objective of a system based upon the modern ICT lines would be to increase the profitability of the farmer by increasing the yield and reducing the cost of production. Moreover this system will help in keeping the soil healthy for a longer period of time which was not possible in previous system.
The natural resources are depleting rapidly due to which the agriculture sector is under a lot of pressure. The major problems being faced by agriculture sector are; Decline of soil fertility, Effects of climate change, Deficiency in the area of agriculture land due to urbanization. So in order to cope with these challenges and to improve quality standards and regulations for the production and handling of agricultural products, news approaches and technological innovations are required.
Under these circumstances the role of ICT is crucial. That is why at The WORLD SUMMIT ON THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY (WSIS 2003-2005) the role of ICT was acknowledged by all the participating countries. INTERNATINAL INSTITUTE FOR COMMUNICATION AND DEVELOPMENT (IICD) is doing works on the projects, policy trajectories and impact of the use of ICT IN AGRICULTURE SECTOR SINCE 1988. These works include the controlling of various phases of farming like ploughing, transportation of products and other goods by computers, Internet, geographical systems as well as traditional media such as T.V.
In Pakistan agriculture is the primary source of income for about half of the country’s 150 million inhabitants and these are spread over 300,000 square miles. There are already 3 million internet users in Pakistan but still there is a great need of using e-learning in agriculture.
Some of the objectives of use of ICT in agriculture are;

1. Enhancing Agricultural Production
ICT can be use to increase efficiency, productivity and sustainability of small scale farms. There are many threats in farming which the farmers have to face which are; poor soil, drought, erosion and pests. ICT can help farmers to save from these problems by giving them information about new varieties of pesticides and methods to control diseases and new ways to optimize production and regulations for quality control.
2. Better market access
The main problem faced by farmers is the new trends and prices of goods in market. If they have up to date information about these things that can improve their livelihoods substantially and have a domestic impact on their negotiating position. These informations are very helpful in making ideas and plans about future crop cultivation and best time and place to sell the goods in market. In some countries initiatives have been taken and some simple websites are launched. The information is published on a website which is easily accessible by farmers. Typically price information is collected at the main regional markets and stored in a central database.
3. Capacity –building and empowerment
ICT can be use by farmers and community organizations to strengthen their own capacities and better represent their constituencies when negotiating prices, land claims, resource rights and infrastructure.
It is easy for rural communities to interact with other stakeholders as the internet which has made the world a global village reduces social isolation. So in other words ICT has played a role in making processes more efficient. Some devices like digital cameras and GLOBAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) and GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) help rural communities to document and communicate their situation.
4. ICT in agriculture sector plans
Today the governments have realized the necessity of implanting ICT in agricultural sectors, policies and programs. INTERNATINAL INSTITUTE FOR COMMUNICATION AND DEVELOPMENT (IICD) has been playing its role in many countries like Ghana, Bolivia and Jamaica in which droughts and food shortage is a common problem.
5. Institutional mechanisms and human capacity to link rural communities
There lie a huge gap between information residing in agricultural knowledge centers and rural communities. To provide relevant information to end user multi-stakeholder mechanism is important at local level. In many countries including Pakistan mobile Q&A services are provided to get informations. In nine countries INTERNATINAL INSTITUTE FOR COMMUNICATION AND DEVELOPMENT (IICD) and ICT For Development (ICT4D) are working together to play an important role in knowledge sharing, bringing various stakeholders together and engaging in policy dialogues.

Scope

It is a matter of fact that the Pakistani farmers are suffering from multitude of problems which include the unavailability of clean drinking water, proper health care, water resources for farming and proper advice about farming. The major problem is the lack of proper financial resources.
However by using the said system it is not possible to solve all the problems faced by the farming community. Our aim should be to build a system that exploits the advances in information technology to better help farmers to improve the crop productivity. As the proposed system cannot help farmers if their crop is getting dry due to lack of water or their produce has no market. The proposed system is not aimed at providing solutions to resolve such situations. However, despite these factors we believe that by providing timely expert advice to the framers, the resolution of several situations that are disturbing the crop and improve productivity are possible. For instance, some farmers use excess fertilizers hoping to get more yield and some farmers use excess pesticides due to lack of pesticide information. Sometimes, they take loans at higher interest rates to meet unproductive expenses and fall into a debt trap. The proposed system is aimed to improve the situation of the farming community by providing fresh and expert advice to the farmers. By providing timely advice, the system aims to reduce the effect of the factors disturbing the crop (such as sudden pest attack) and maximize the yield.
It should be noted that all the problems faced by the farming community are crucial and should be resolved at the earliest. Crop failure (or low yield) problem is one of the most nagging problems. By considering Internet as a facility to transfer the advanced agricultural knowledge to the farming community, we hope that crop failure problems will be reduced. So, information technology component is a new addition to the existing methods.

Literature Survey

To know about the various ICT projects in various sectors of agriculture we analyzed different initiatives taken by different government and private organizations. Some of them are,

Strengthening of Livestock Services Project ( SLSP )

Purpose
Pakistan is a developing nation comprising of more than 150 million people who constitutes about 6.5 million families who depend mainly upon livestock for their livelihoods. According to the statistics of 2004-2005 the livestock population in Pakistan comprises of 26.2 million buffaloes, 24.2 million cattle, 24.9 million sheep and 56.7 million goats, most of which are reared by small and land-less farmers. These Animals provide food (meat, milk, milk products and eggs) which fulfills the domestic demand for consumption and sale; hides and skins. Many industries of Pakistan depend mainly upon these animals for their working like leather industry (a pioneer item in the export list of Pakistan) and textile industry (which depend upon the wool and hair of these animals). In addition to these obvious contributions to people's livelihoods, livestock in the 'informal economy' animals constitute an important means of accumulating and distributing wealth. Pakistan is the home of the well known Sahiwal breed of dairy cattle and fine Pashmina wool. The livestock sector mainly uses ordinary breeds and relatively unskilled husbandry methods. Rural families raise livestock mainly on subsidiary land, which does not allow the high levels of production that are needed to meet the increasing demands of the human population, which is estimated to be growing at a rate of 2.6% annually. To meet these demands, livestock production has to be increased. But the problem is that the country has almost reached its maximum carrying capacity (i.e., the number of animals that can be supported by the available land and range resources) and the productivity of livestock has to be improved instead of simply increasing the numbers of livestock kept. The Government of Pakistan has recognized the constraints on the livestock sector and, in partnership with the European Union, has funded the Strengthening of Livestock Services Project (SLSP).
The project man target is the problems of animal disease control by looking especially at the eradication of Rinderpest and to address the problem of Foot and Mouth Diseases because the control of these diseases is necessary for the export of the animals and animal product to other countries of the world. The last but not the least the conception and putting in place of Livestock Sector Management Information System.
Some facts about SLSP4
Financed by: The European Union and the Government of Pakistan
Financing agreement number: PAK/RELEX/2001/0129
Project number: EC/GOP Project ALA/01/129
Financial commitment: Total = €25 942 000
Comprising: €22 900 000 from EU & € 3 042 000 from GOP (equivalent in Rupees)
Duration of Project: 6 years
Commencement of Project: September 2003
Completion of Project: September 2009
Implementation Agencies: Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock .

Location of the Project
The SLSP is being implemented throughout the Pakistan but it activities were started in the focus districts before other places. The focus district were selected on various points some of them include livestock densities, ecoagrological features and provincial priorities.
Information and communication
Information cells have been set up at all the major parts of the country. An extensive amount of media produced and attention seeker leaflets, posters, manuals etc have been distributed. Moreover radio programmes in local languages have been started so that the benefits of the project can easily reach a common man.
The success of the Project
The success of the project depend upon the effective transportation of the information of a disease of a animal to the high level laboratories so that the cure of the disease can be found as early as possible and also to find the ways by which the spread of the disease can be controlled. This all depends on creating such a network which cannot only benefit a rural farmer but can also help the government by allowing it to take necessary steps for the safe and healthy life of the animals.

MISTOWA Project

Inadequate access to the market information has always been a major barrier for agricultural trade in West Africa. The traders are unaware of goods prices, places where they can find potential buyers and sellers and also the demand of their goods in the neighboring countries. It is not that the information is never collected. In every country the government collects information about market prices each day but the information is used to determine long-term
trends for food security purposes. But the information is never made available to the needy traders in a timely manner. Moreover the inter-country trade is conducted on an ad-hoc basis because the information about the markets is not made available to the foreign suppliers. These all factors have resulted in lower-than-optimal internal trade levels in many developing countries and sub regions.
While market information projects have been previously set up in many developing countries to try to treat such situations, we have not been able to develop such an ICT application which can support them no ICT application had yet been developed specifically to support them. Many people have develop their own applications to solve the problem but the hindrance in their usage is that either they are build on systems which are inefficiently developed or the applications are too complex for their intended users.
According to MISTOWA statistics, before the project was started in West Africa the combined domestic markets for food and agricultural produce were US$25 billion per year but only $400 million was traded yearly within the region, compared with $16.5 billion externally.
To create an Electronic Agribusiness Information Exchange Platform (EAIEP), MISTOWA developed a very successful private-public partnership with "Busylab". This partnership resulted is the creation of www.tradenet.biz which offers access to real-time market information (prices, offers to buy and sell, contacts) on over 300 products and from over 500 markets throughout West Africa. This information is accessible via internet as well as through related SMS services.
To make the plateform easily accessible MISTOWA established over 100 “Agribusiness Information Points” (ABIPs) in 13 countries throughout West Africa. ABIP managers are now highly trained in the use of Tradenet and are able to facilitate producers and traders developing profitable market linkages.

Project Overview5
Project Name
Regional Market Information Systems and Traders’ Organizations in West Africa (MISTOWA)
Project Objective
MISTOWA aims to increase regional agricultural trade and food security by improving regional
efforts to generate, disseminate, and make commercial use of market information
Geographic Coverage
West Africa, with focus on Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger,
Nigeria , Senegal, The Gambia and Togo
Duration
October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2007
Initial Commodity Coverage
Rice, maize, cassava, tomatoes, onions, cashew, shea nut/butter, fertilizer, cattle, red meat,
cowpea, fish, mangoes and sesame
Funding
$ 10,400,216 from USAID/WA (Economic Growth and Agriculture);
$1,400,000 from Agriterra (The Netherlands) to support capacity building of producers and their
organizations and to improve their access to markets
Project Strategy
MISTOWA strives to alleviate three key obstacles to agricultural trade among countries in West
Africa:
1) Lack of timely access to information on prices and market opportunities
2) Inadequate organizational and business skills of producers and traders which hinders their ability to respond to production and market opportunities and
3) Unfavorable trading environment, including nontariff trade barriers such as border harassment.
The project activities have been designed to address these obstacles and contribute to the
achievement of three corresponding Project Intermediate Results (PIRs).
Project Intermediate Results (PIRs)
PIR 1: Improved market information generation and dissemination: The goal is to provide
producers and traders with access to real time market information by reinforcing existing publicsector
market information systems and developing a new private sector ICT-based system to
facilitate intra-regional trade
PIR 2: Improved trader and producer skills: The goal is to build the organizational, technical and
agribusiness skills of producer and trader organizations so that they are better able to identify and
respond to market opportunities
PIR 3: Improved West African trade environment: The goal is to build the skills of producer and
trader organizations to better advocate for an improved trade policy environment
The results of the 3 year program
By the end of the USAID-funded (3-year) project period, MISTOWA was able in achieving 20% increase in intra-regional trade recorded by targeted collaborating trader organizations. In fact, these organizations reported a 26% increase in intra-regional trade in selected commodities. In addition, MISTOWA partners voluntarily reported nearly $52 million dollars in intra-regional trade concluded, in some way resulting from MISTOWA support (trade partners were identified on Tradenet, deals were negotiated at MISTOWA-sponsored events, trade was concluded as a result of sponsored trade exchange visits , etc.). Not bad for a project that invested only $11 million dollars!

Wireless Soil Sensor

At Iowa State University (ISU) a research in being done on wireless soil sensors to improve farming.
Working6

ISU officials say that ‘the prototype sensors are designed to collect and send data about soil moisture — and eventually soil temperature and nutrient content — while working completely underground.’ According to the project leader, ‘The goal is to hopefully have these sensors in production agriculture. But first we need to develop them and answer more questions about how cost-effective they could be.’

Funds
$239,999 granted from the National Science Foundation (NSF) for this project.
Duration
May 1, 2006 to April 30, 2009.
Availability
The developing and checking process is still underway. These wireless soil networks could become available by the end of 2009

Prototype County

Project Title: ICTs Serve for Agriculture and Rural Development in a Prototype County in China.
Funding Organization: IDRC (Pan Asia R&D Grant from Pan Asia Network)
Objective
The project was started in March 2003 and was planned for duration of half year but was later extended to a period of 10 months. The objective of the project was to select a county, to serve as the example on how the information technology and communication technology (ICTs) may help on farming community to achieve the additional economic growth. The selection was based on the criteria that the chosen county must have obvious advantages on geography that can be correlated to great demonstration effect. It should also have abundant information sources and sufficient communication and Internet hardware, which would be the foundation for implementing the project.
Selection
Under these conditions Kunshan was selected as the prototype county to implement the project.
Results7
At the end of the 10 months period, following results were obtained:
1. Full understanding on Kunshan agriculture production and its future development;
2. Researched the needs for agriculture information and their formats;
3. Identified the current local agriculture information structure and its utilization situation;
4. Visited all agriculture related government bureaus for administrative purpose;
5. Researched the current existed local agriculture web sites and its modes of operation;
6. Discussed the possibility on consolidation of their sites into our system;
7. Coordinated the Morning Glory Digital Technology Company (a subsidiary of Kunshan Direction Development Corporation) on construction of www.ChinaAg.com web site.
8. Assisted Morning Glory on building the TV Web for information exchange platform;
9. Selected the demonstration townships and villages;
10. Completed the implementation procedure for the local government.

Rice Seed Inventory System

Project
Development of an SMS-Based Rice Seed Stock Inventory System for Rice Farmers.
Location
Philippines
Grant Amount
US$ 30,000
Project Duration
Start Date: January 2005
End Date: January 2007
Objective
The objective of this project was to enable seed growers and seed stockers to connect together and to form a real time system for sharing stock inventory system.
Results
The Department of Science and Technology - Advanced Science and Technology Institute (ASTI) created a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) modem linked to a Microsoft Windows-based user interface that allowed an operator to read and reply to text messages. Which was then associated with a cellular company (SMART Communications) to offer SMS service. However the system proved to be unstable due to bugs in the coding and had limitations in the number of text messages the system could handle.
In response to this setback the project acquired a new system called GIVE ME Unlimited SMS from M2M company. Whose service was a SMS-based customer support software much like a call centre that can be accessed from the Internet. The new system proved more stable. It allowed the project team to create keywords and assign them to content providers (breeders, seed personnel, sales office, SeedNet managers). It also has a database to store names, phone numbers and addresses. The project received more than 600 text queries per month in its initial implication. To allow more user handling project negotiated with a commercial Telco to provide a web-based SMS platform that could handle over a thousand users and transfer the cost of the text queries to users.
At this point the project signed memorandums with two farmer cooperatives in Davao, Del Sur, Mindanao that agreed to test the services. These are the Magsaysay Farmers MultiPurpose Cooperative, Inc. and the Hagonoy Farmers’ Cooperative. Under the agreement, PhilRice will work with the cooperatives to test the web portal services, farmers call centre and online payment. PhilRice provided the cooperatives with a wireless Internet connection installed in a desktop computer. Using this system the cooperatives will explore selling hybrid and organic rice products to areas outside of Mindanao.
The project also launched its web portal at (http://www.openacademy.ph).

Conclusions

Some conclusions drawn from the study are;
Efforts should be made to use ICT in all sectors of agriculture. The organizations and other peoples relating to agriculture need to realize the potential of ICT that can be used for the development in agriculture. The first steps of using ICT in agriculture are being taken just in every country. United States , Europe and Australia are leading the whole world by implanting the use of ICT in the agriculture and giving a lesson to developing countries to do the same. Agriculture of a country is very necessary for its inhabitants so there is a great need to improve it. Government of a country must do work to implanting ICT in agriculture. In Pakistan the use of ICT in agriculture is on the very initial step but it is spreading very rapidly. Organizations and some NGO’s are doing work in order to use ICT in agriculture effectively. It is also the duty of Government to aware the middle-aged farmers about the availability of ICT services in agriculture and brings the other farmers from remote areas in the chain of ICT. It is also strongly recommended that before implanting the use of ICT in any area the farmers should give the teachings of the ICT so that they remain faithful with these projects.
By using the modern tools of data capture (remote sensing and ground based), data analysis and modelling based on the concepts of Geographic Information System, it is now possible to model a modern agriculture system and gain insights into the interdependencies/interrelationships between the different components and explore alternative route(s) to development. Moreover by using the state of art tools of spatial data management, we can set up an integrating framework at microlevel for examing the different problems of agricultural production system with the participation of farming community, government officials and academia.

References

• Wikipedia
• Buenafe R. Abdon and Robert T. Raab, Knowledge Sharing and Distance Learning for Sustainable Agricultures in Asia-Pacific Region: the Role of the Internet.
• Katherine Morrow, The ICT agenda: global action plans and local solutions.
• Progress Report on ICTs Serve for Agriculture and Rural Development in a Prototype County, Dr. Zuorui Shen of China Agriculture University.
• United Nations Development Program. HTTP://”www.apdip.net”.
• M.F. Warren, Adoption of ICT agricultural management in the United Kingdom.
• A Study of Actual and Preferred Learning Activities and Microcomputer Usage in a Selected Group of Michigan Farmers" (Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 1987)
• R. Keith Iddings and Jerold W. Apps, What Influences Farmers' Computer Use?
• Ehud Gelb and Guido Bonati, Evaluating Internet for Extension in Agriculture.
• Spyros Fountas, Søren Marcus Pedersen, Simon Blackmore, ICT in Precision Agriculture – diffusion of technology.
• Stephen B. Harsh, MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS.
• Andy Offer, INTRODUCTION - COMPUTERS AND FARMING: VISION AND REALITY?
• Dr. Don Richardson, How Can Agricultural Extension Best Harness ICTs to Improve Rural Livelihoods in Developing Countries?
• Nicole Taragola and Ehud Gelb, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Adoption in Horticulture: A Comparison to the EFITA Baseline.
• E. Gelb, C. Parker, ICT Adoption as an Agricultural Information Dissemination Tool – An historical perspective, Mick Harkin.
• E. Gelb, C. Parker, Is ICT Adoption for Agriculture Still an Important Issue?
• Arieh Maoz, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Adoption as a Tool for Agricultural Research Coordination and Information Dissemination.
• Friedrich Kuhlmann,IT Applications in Agriculture: Some Developments and Perspectives.
• Gio Wiederhold (2002), Information systems that also predict into future, Lecture Notes in Computer Science.

Project by : Shabih Ul Hassan & Ahsan Rafique
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External links

GOP
University of Agriculture and Food
United States Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service.
AgriWatch
ITC Ltd
APDIP
College of life sciences
IIT
SLSP
Smart Communication
E-Trade Center
Iowa State University

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